Functions

Date

MONTH

# How to Use Excel's MONTH Function in Pandas

Excel's MONTH function extracts the month as a number from a time value. It's especially useful when working with large datasets where you need to analyze data at monthly granularity.

This page explains how to implement Excel's MONTH function in Python using pandas.

## Implementing the Month Extraction function in Pandas#

Recreating Excel's MONTH function behavior in Python requires a combination of pandas operations. Here are some common implementations:

### Extracting Month from Datetime#

In Excel, if you have a datetime value, you might use the MONTH function directly to get the month. Similarly, in pandas, you use the `.dt` accessor followed by the `month` attribute.

For example, in Excel you might use =MONTH(A2). In pandas:

`df['Month'] = df['Datetime_Column'].dt.month`

### Use Mito's MONTH function

Mito is an open source library that lets you write Excel formulas in Python. Either write the formula directly in Python or use the MONTH formula in the Mito Spreadsheet and generate the equivalent Python code automatically.

Mito's MONTH function works exactly like it does in Excel. That means you don't need worry about managing data types, handling errors, or the edge case differences between Excel and Python formulas.

Install Mito to start using Excel formulas in Python.

```
# Import the mitosheet Excel functions
from mitosheet.public.v3 import *;
# Use Mito's MONTH function
# Note: No need to convert the column to a datetime first
# because Mito's MONTH formula handles that for us
df['Month'] = MONTH(df['Date'])
```

### Converting string to datetime and then extracting month#

Often, Pandas will infer the data type of your column as string, even if the data to you looks like a date, ie: 1/2/23. In these cases, you need to convert the string to datetime before extracting the month.

To do this in pandas, first use `pd.to_datetime` to convert the column to a datetime column, and then extract the month:

```
# Convert the string to datetime
df['Datetime_Column'] = pd.to_datetime(df['String_Column'])
# Extract the month from the datetime column
df['Month'] = df['Datetime_Column'].dt.month
```

### Extract the month as January, February, etc.#

Instead of returning the month as a number, you might want to return the month as January, February, etc.

To do so, use the `month_name` attribute instead of `month`. It will return the month as a word.

```
# Extract the month as January, February, etc.
df['Month'] = df['Date'].dt.month_name()
```

### Grouping Data by Month#

There are situations where you want to aggregate data based on month. In Excel, you might use a pivot table after extracting the month. Similarly, in pandas, after extracting the month, you can use the `groupby` method

For example, if you have a column called 'Date' and a column called 'Website Traffic', you might want to group the data by month and sum the traffic for each month.

```
df['Month'] = df['Date'].dt.month
grouped_data = df.groupby('Month').agg({'Website Traffic': 'sum'}).reset_index()
```

## Common mistakes when using MONTH in Python#

While implementing the MONTH function equivalent in pandas, a few common pitfalls might occur. Here's how to navigate them.

### Incorrect datatypes#

The `.dt` accessor is exclusive to pandas Series with datetime64 data types. Using it on non-datetime columns will raise an AttributeError.

For example, if you have a column called 'Date', but it actually has an object data type, you'll need to convert it to datetime before using the `.dt` accessor. You can check the data type of a column using `df.dtypes`.

```
# Ensure the column is of datetime dtype
df['Datetime_Column'] = pd.to_datetime(df['Datetime_Column'])
df['Month'] = df['Datetime_Column'].dt.month
```

### Forgetting to Handle Null Values#

If your dataset has missing or NaT (Not-a-Timestamp) values in the datetime column, trying to extract the month from them will result in NaN (Not a Number) values. Make sure to handle or filter them out as necessary.

```
# Drop rows with NaT values before extracting month
df.dropna(subset=['Datetime_Column'], inplace=True)
df['Month'] = df['Datetime_Column'].dt.month
```

## Understanding the Month Extraction Formula in Excel#

The MONTH function in Excel returns the month of a time value, ranging from 1 to 12.

=MONTH(serial_number)

### MONTH Excel Syntax

Parameter | Description | Data Type |
---|---|---|

serial_number | The time value from which you want to extract the month. | A valid Excel time |

### Examples

Formula | Description | Result |
---|---|---|

=MONTH("5/21/2021 9:30 PM") | Extracts the month from the given time. | 5 |

=MONTH("21-May-2021 6:00 AM") | Extracts the month from the given time. | 5 |

=MONTH("5/21/2021") | Extracts the month from the given time. | 5 |

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